The Leap2A specification for e-portfolio portability and interoperability

Preface

Leap2A is an interoperability specification for the portability of e-portfolio information. It is based on Atom, and licenced with OWFa 1.0.

For the convenience of the reader and user, the specification is offered in two equivalent formats:

Contents


  Classes
including
Item types
Properties
Relationships
from items
to other items and
to other things
Literal
properties
from Atom,
Leap2, etc.
Mixed
properties

and
Attributes
taken
from
Atom
taken
from
elsewhere
native
to
Leap2

Introduction


Individual people can gather, manage and display information to support their learning, development, planning and action at any stage and in any area of life. The information gathered in one setting can be useful in other settings, and various tools or services could be used to help with these processes.

Leap2A offers a model for representing information and resources authored, owned, controlled or collected by individuals —

— so that the various tools or services used by the individual can more easily share or pass relevant information between each other. Information transfer of this kind, possibly containing sensitive information, needs careful attention to privacy, security, identity, authentication and authorisation, which all have a much wider scope than e-portfolio systems, and Leap2A does not attempt to specify anything related to them.

Leap2A specifies a structure for small meaningful self-contained units — items — of information. Leap2A also allows description of and reference to non-item resources, through a set of relationships between items of information, and between items and the resources that they represent and refer to. It does not specify or require structure for non-item resources.

Leap2A recognises that resources can be local and electronic, like attached files; non-local and electronic, like resources on the web; or physical, in which case they can be described and can have URIs. Electronic resources can simply be thought of as attached in the same sense as attachments to a blog post. It is preferable especially where they are used more than once, or need description, to have one special Leap2A item associated with each resource, to hold any description and metadata for that resource.

Leap2A also specifies a set of categories that can apply to Leap2A items, and allows the application of other categories defined by individuals or organisations.

So as to keep documentation about any particular feature together, for each term, this specification defines first the binding-independent structure, and then, with a slightly different background colour, how to implement the particular structure based on the Atom Syndication Format (the "A" of Leap2A), together with links to examples and further documentation.


Terminology and abbreviations


The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.
However, these words are not capitalised in this document.

item
This term is used extensively throughout this document, to refer to any actual self-contained set of information and/or metadata that is implemented in Leap2A as an Atom entry. All Atom entries in Leap2A represent items. Logically speaking, an item is distinct from the relationships that it participates in, though in Atom these relationships are represented by link instances contained within the entry. Leap2A items are also distinct from any attached file to which they might relate.
portfolio holder
This term refers to the person to whom all the portfolio information is related.
CV
curriculum vitae (or résumé)
IM
instant messaging
ISO
the International Organization for Standardization
LRS
the UK's Learning Records Service
MIAP
Managing Information Across Partners: a UK government organisation that preceded the LRS
RFC
request for comments — see Wikipedia.
URI
uniform resource identifier as defined in RFC 3986 (see also Wikipedia)
URL
uniform resource locator as defined in RFC 3986 (see also Wikipedia)
VOIP
Voice over IP — see Wikipedia
XHTML
eXtensible HyperText Markup Language — see Wikipedia
XML
Extensible Markup Language (see also Wikipedia)

Leap2 classes


Note on inheritance of constraints

All constraints applying to a class shall also apply to all classes that refine that class.

Classes from Atom

 

term: entry

definition:expression, reflection, entry, post, note, comment, or similar, together with associated metadata
notes:The default class for Leap2 items.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/entry
refines: 
refined by: ability; achievement; activity; organization; person; plan; resource; selection;
constraints:
  • must have exactly one author property if the item author is not the same as the feed author
  • must have exactly one id property (as in Atom)
  • must have exactly one title property (as in Atom)
  • must have exactly one updated property (as in Atom)
  • must have exactly one type property
  • must have exactly one content property (stricter than Atom)
  • must not have more than one summary property (as in Atom)
  • must not have more than one published property (as in Atom)
  • must not have more than one rights property (as in Atom)
  • must not have more than one status property
  • must not have more than one myrole property
  • must not have more than one activetime property
  • must not have more than one issued property
  • must not have more than one date property with the same point attribute value
  • must comply with other Atom constraints not affecting elements specified by Leap2A
Leap2A implementation: As in Atom. If not one of the more refined types, should include
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/entry" />
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: feed

definition:whole set of items, relationships and resources communicated together
notes:This may be the complete set of things stored in a system for an individual, or a set of them.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/feed
constraints:
  • must have exactly one version property
  • must have exactly one author property (stricter than Atom)
  • must have exactly one id property (as in Atom)
  • must have exactly one title property (as in Atom)
  • must have exactly one updated property (as in Atom)
  • must comply with other Atom constraints not affecting elements specified by Leap2A
  • should not have any Atom icon properties
  • should not have any Atom logo properties
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: person_construct

definition:information identifying a person or organization
notes:This structure from Atom doesn't fit in well with Leap2A, but is preserved to maintain compatibility with Atom. In Leap2A, a person is represented by a person item, and authorship and contributorship would ideally be represented simply by a link. But in Atom, an author is seen as something quite different from an entry. The reconciliation is that the atom:author element has a URI, originally intended to hold a personal URI for the author. In Leap2A, this URI element should be used to point to the person item. As the persondata in a person item will normally contain an e-mail address, the email element in Atom should not be used in Leap2A. When importing a plain Atom feed, it would make sense to store person_construct information, but to export it in the form of a Leap2A person item.
constraints:
  • must have exactly one name property (Atom)
  • should have one uri property
  • must not have more than one uri property (Atom)
  • should not have any email properties
  • must not have more than one email property (Atom)
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom, except that the uri element should be the identifier of the relevant person item, if one exists. If a person item exists, the e-mail element should not be used in the person construct.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

Leap2 item types

 

term: ability

definition:description applicable to what a person might know or be able to do
notes:Either links to definition or described directly by portfolio holder.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/ability
refines:entry
constraints:
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/ability" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: achievement

definition:information about a desired state of the world that has been aided by the agency of the portfolio holder
notes:Achievements are seen as being achieved at a particular time, in contrast to activities.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/achievement
refines:entry
constraints:
  • should have one date property
  • must not have more than two date properties
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/achievement" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: activity

definition:information about a happening, event, episode, occupation, experience, etc. that can have a start and an end
notes:May comprise a group of lesser activities.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/activity
refines:entry
refined by: affiliation; meeting
constraints:
  • should have at least one date property
  • must not have more than three date properties
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/activity" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: affiliation

definition:information about an association of the portfolio holder with some specific organization
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/affiliation
refines:activity
constraints:
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/affiliation" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: meeting

definition:information about an activity involving two or more people
notes:A meeting may have agenda and outcomes of interest to the portfolio holder.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/meeting
refines:activity
constraints:
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/meeting" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: organization

definition:information about a commercial, social or political entity of interest to the portfolio holder
notes:Information about the role of the portfolio holder with respect to this organization should be held in an affiliation item, linked by a supports property of the organization.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/organization
refines:entry
constraints:
  • should not have any myrole properties
  • should not have any roleid properties
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/organization" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: person

definition:information about the portfolio holder or another person of relevance to the portfolio
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/person
refines:entry
constraints:
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/person" />
...
</entry>
Should include some persondata as a sub-element.
links to examples:
 

term: plan

definition:formulation of a course of action intended to bring about some end result or achievement
notes:A considered plan will typically be intended to achieve one of the portfolio holder's goals or purposes, and may involve several planned activities, or sub-plans intended to bring about intermediate goals.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/plan
refines:entry
constraints:
  • should have at least one date property
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/plan" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: publication

definition:information about a publication relevant to the portfolio holder
notes:The publication can either be one that the holder has authored or contributed to, or one that is just of interest or value to the holder.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/publication
refines:resource
constraints:
  • should have one summary property giving an abstract of the publication
  • should have one myrole property
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/publication" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: resource

definition:information about something relevant to and of value to the portfolio holder
notes:This could be a digital resource, or just a description of a non-digital or non-linked resource, relevant to the portfolio holder, other than something that is better represented as a publication, person, organization or selection.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/resource
refines:entry
refined by: publication;
constraints:
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/resource" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

term: selection

definition:set of related portfolio items or external resources
notes:A selection is typically selected by the portfolio holder for a particular purpose and for display to a particular audience
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/selection
refines:entry
constraints:
Leap2A implementation:
<entry>
<rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/selection" />
...
</entry>
links to examples:
 

Leap2 properties


When the definite article the is used, it refers to the domain object which has this property.

Relationships between items

The value of the href attribute shall be the same as the identifier of the other entry related to. The definition specifies the significance or meaning of the other entry.

 

term: attended_by

definition:person attending the activity
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/attended_by
refines:supported_by
domain:activity
range:person
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/attended_by" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: attends

definition:activity attended by the person
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/attends
refines:supports
domain:person
range:activity
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/attends" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: has_agenda

definition:something on the agenda of the meeting
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/has_agenda
refines:supported_by
domain:meeting
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/had_agenda" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: has_evidence

definition:some evidence for the item
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/has_evidence
refines:supported_by
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/has_evidence" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: has_outcome

definition:outcome of the meeting
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/has_outcome
refines:supports
domain:activity
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/has_outcome" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: has_part

definition:part by composition
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/has_part
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
attributes:
display_order (optional)
integer; lower numbers should be displayed earlier than higher ones in any listing of parts
when_added (optional)
date-time when part was added to whole; also serves as alternative method for display ordering
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/has_part" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: has_reply

alias: replies (Atom)

definition:reply to the item
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/has_reply
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="replies" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: in_reply_to

alias: thr:in-reply-to (Atom)

definition:item that was replied to by the present one
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/in_reply_to
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <thr:in-reply-to href="..." /> within domain item.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: is_agenda_of

definition:meeting for which the item is agenda
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/is_agenda_of
refines:supports
domain:entry
range:meeting
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/is_agenda_of" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: is_evidence_of

definition:subject of an item which the item is evidence of
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/is_evidence_of
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/is_evidence_of" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: is_outcome_of

definition:outcome of the activity
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/is_outcome_of
refines:supported_by
domain:entry
range:activity
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/is_outcome_of" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: is_part_of

definition:whole of which the item represents a part by composition
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/is_part_of
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
attributes:
display_order (optional)
integer; lower numbers should be displayed earlier that higher ones in any listing of parts
when_added (optional)
date-time when part was added to whole; also serves as alternative method for display ordering
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/is_part_of" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: reflected_on_by

definition:item that reflects on the present item
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/reflected_on_by
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/reflected_on_by" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: reflects_on

definition:item that the present item reflects on
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/reflects_on
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/reflects_on" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: relation

alias: related (Atom)

definition:another item related to the present item
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/relation
refines:
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="related" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: supported_by

definition:item that supports (or whose subject supports) the present one (or its subject)
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/supported_by
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/supported_by" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

term: supports

definition:item that (or the subject of which) the present item (or its subject) supports in some way
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/supports
refines:relation
domain:entry
range:entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/supports" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
 

Relationships between items and other things

The value of the href attribute shall be the appropriate identifier for the thing related to. If the thing related to is another item, this shall be its internal identifer. If it is an attached file, this shall be the relative URL of that file in the zip archive. If it is another resource, this shall be the URI of that resource.

 

term: alternate

definition:"alternate version of the resource"
notes:Discouraged in Leap2A, except to provide translated entries of any kind, in which case the hreflang attribute should be used.
domain:entry
range:anything, including another entry
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="alternate" href="..." hreflang="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: enclosure

definition:attached file
notes:Normal use is from a resource to a file enclosed. Additionally, usable to note an attached file referred to once in any other item.
domain:entry
range:attached file
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="enclosure" href="..." length="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: license

definition:license under which the item or feed is published
notes:"The IRI specified by the link's href attribute SHOULD be dereferenceable to return a representation of the license. The license representation MAY be machine readable." Note American spelling. For human-readable text, use rights.
domain:entry
range:license
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="license" type="..." href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
  • Atom License Extension: license
  • Creative Commons: Atom
 

term: self

definition:equivalent resource
notes:Should be used when a resource refers to something available on the web, rather than something attached. Also may be used in a feed if there is a URL that delivers this feed or an updated version of it.
domain:entry
range:resource
Leap2A implementation: <link rel="self" href="..." /> as Atom link.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

Literal properties from Atom

 

term: content

definition:the substance of the item
notes:For items that have a subject, this normally describes the subject. For entries and other items without a subject, this is the content.
domain:entry
data type:text or XHTML
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: id

definition:"permanent, universally unique identifier"
notes:
domain:entry
data type:URI
Leap2A implementation:As Atom constrains these to being URIs, all item identifiers must take the form of URIs. It is allowed to have full URIs, but if full URIs are not used (in an effort to create a more readable and shorter xml file) all item identifiers must start with prefix of the form portfolio: (which is the recommended convention). For example portfolio:entry-123
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
  • Atom: id
 

term: name

definition:"human-readable name for the person"
notes:
domain:person construct
data type:text
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: published

definition:"instant in time associated with an event early in the life cycle of the entry"
notes:The date refers to the item itself, not any subject of the item.
domain:entry
data type:RFC 3339
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom (note Date Construct additional constraints on RFC 3339)
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: rights

definition:"information about rights held in and over an entry or feed"
notes:This is for human-readable information. For a machine-readable URI, use license.
domain:entry
data type:text
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: summary

definition:"short summary, abstract, or excerpt of an entry"
notes:This should not duplicate the title or content.
domain:entry
data type:text
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: title

definition:text to be read indicating subject matter
notes:This needs to be human-readable and suitable for having as the text for a link, as in a list of entries.
domain:entry
data type:text
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: updated

definition:most recent time at which the item was significantly modified
notes:May be same as published.
domain:entry
data type:RFC 3339
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom (note Date Construct additional constraints on RFC 3339)
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: uri

definition:identifier of the related person item
notes:If no corresponding person item exists, may be used as in Atom to give a URI associated with the person.
domain:person construct
data type:URI
Leap2A implementation:As in Atom, except that for Leap2A the value should be the identifier of the person item in the current feed.
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

Mixed properties and properties taken from elsewhere

 

term: author

definition:agent responsible for authoring the item
notes:This refers either to the feed as a whole, or to an item as a record, not to the thing referred to or described.
domain:entry, feed
range:person construct
Leap2A implementation:
<author>
    <name>...</name>
    <uri>...</uri>
</author>
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: contributor (Atom)

definition:agent contributing to an item, other than an author
notes:
domain:entry, feed
range:person construct
Leap2A implementation:
<contributor>
    <name>...</name>
    <uri>...</uri>
</contributor>
links to examples:
links to further documentation:

term: contributor (Dublin Core)

definition:agent contributing to a resource, other than a creator
notes:
domain:resource
range:organization, person
data type:text; URI
Leap2A implementation:
<dcterms:contributor>...</dcterms:contributor>
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: creator

definition:agent responsible for authorship or creation of a resource referred to
notes:
domain:resource
range:organization, person
data type:text; URI
Leap2A implementation:
<dcterms:creator>...</dcterms:creator>
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: issued

definition:publication date of the indicated resource
notes:This refers to the publication itself, not the record about it.
domain:publication
data type:W3C-DTF
Leap2A implementation:
<dcterms:issued>...</dcterms:issued>
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: type

definition:type of item in Leap2A terms
notes:
domain:entry
data type:Leap2A type URI
Leap2A implementation:
<rdf:type rdf:resource="..." />
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
  • RDF: type in RDF Schema
 

Properties native to Leap2A

 

term: activetime

definition:time actually spent on the activity
notes:Could be recorded for assessment, credit, time accounting or just personal record purposes.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/activetime
domain:activity
data type:ISO 8601 duration
to degrade:translate to readable text and append "Time spent: ..." to content
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:activetime>...</leap2:activetime>
links to examples:
 

term: addressline

definition:line of a postal address
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/addressline
domain: spatial
data type:text
attributes:
label (optional)
human readable locally-defined label for the kind of address
to degrade:insert in place into spatial; discard label
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:addressline leap2:label="...">...</leap2:addressline>
links to examples:
 

term: country

definition:country of residence, nationality or similar
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/country
domain: spatial
data type:text
attributes:
countrycode (recommended)
3-letter code corresponding to the country given: ISO 3166-1
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:country leap2:countrycode="...">...</country>
links to examples:
 

term: date

definition:Gregorian date associated with the subject of the item
notes:This is not temporal metadata about the records themselves (published, updated).
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/date
domain: entry
data type:W3C-DTF
attributes:
point (mandatory)
one of: "end"; "start"; "target"
label (optional)
human readable description of date
to degrade:append lll: vvv to content where
  • lll is the point attribute value
  • vvv is the label attribute value if present, otherwise the date itself, preferably in human readable form
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:date leap2:point="..." leap2:label="...">
2011-03-07T11:25+00:00
</leap2:date>
links to examples:
 

term: myrole

definition:role of the portfolio holder relative to the parent item
notes:
  • As a property of an affiliation it represents the membership role, such as "Fellow" or "Director".
  • As a property of an activity (including a meeting) it could be "delegate", "attendee", "speaker" or "organiser", or for an activity representing a period of employment, similarly to the vCard role.
  • As a property of a resource (including publication) it represents the role the holder played in the creation of that resource.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/myrole
domain: entry
data type:text
to degrade:append lll: vvv to content where
  • lll is "My role"
  • vvv is the element text node
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:myrole>...</leap2:myrole>
links to examples:
 

term: postcode

definition:postal code
notes:The code can be in any country's format, therefore has no constraints.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/postcode
domain: spatial
data type:text in a format approved for postal addresses
to degrade:insert in place into spatial
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:postcode>...</leap2:postcode>
links to examples:
 

term: roleid

definition:id associated with a role
notes:
  • As a property of affiliation, this represents the membership number, string, or similar.
  • As a property of anything else, this represents an identifier for the portfolio holder in that context.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/roleid
domain: entry
data type:string
to degrade:append lll: vvv to content where
  • lll is "ID in this role"
  • vvv is the element text node
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:roleid>...</leap2:roleid>
links to examples:
 

term: spatial

definition:address, location or other spatial characteristics of the subject matter of the item
notes:May have an XHTML div element for any display, and/or a structured address.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/spatial
domain: entry
range:xhtml:div; addressline; postcode; country
constraints:
  • must not have more than one xhtml:div property
  • must not have more than one country property
  • must not have more than one postcode property
  • must not contain any free text outside the other elements
to degrade:append lll: vvv to content where
  • lll is "Location" or similar
  • vvv is all the text within the element without markup
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:spatial>...</leap2:spatial>
links to examples:
links to further documentation:
 

term: status

definition:stage of progress of an activity or plan
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/status
domain: entry
data type:(empty)
attributes:
stage (mandatory)
one of "planned", "progressing", "completed", "suspended"
label (optional)
local name for the stage
to degrade:append lll: vvv to content where
  • lll is "Status of this" followed by the item type name
  • vvv is the value of the label attribute if present, otherwise the stage attribute
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:status leap2:stage="..." leap2:label="..." />
links to examples:
 

term: version

definition:version of the Leap specification being used
notes:The version string is the URI associated with that version.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/version
domain: feed
data type:URI
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:version>...</leap2:version>
links to examples:
 

Categories


 

term: category

definition:category assigned to an item
notes:Below are set out the category schemes defined within Leap2A.
domain: entry
data type:(empty)
attributes:
term (mandatory)
May be a term chosen from category schemes either from Leap2 (see below) or locally-defined, or may be user-defined, in which case a scheme is not required.
scheme (optional)
Must be used in conjunction with any Leap2 category; any other system-defined category should also have a scheme.
label (optional)
Local name for the term. Note that this usage of "label" is native to Atom, not specific to Leap2, therefore has no namespace prefix.
Leap2A implementation: As in Atom:
<category term="..." scheme="..." label="..." />
links to examples:
 

Data about people and organizations


This section of the specification is flagged as particularly liable to future change. If another specification or standard, with a suitable XML implementation, and suitable for representing this information, becomes increasingly popular, the intention is to deprecate this part of the specification and instead adopt the emerging standard.

 

term: persondata

definition:data relevant to a person
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/persondata
domain: person
data type:string or URI
attributes:
field (mandatory)
see table of fields below
label
mandatory for the "other" field, otherwise optional; holds local label
service
mandatory for the "id" field
countrycode
recommended for the "country" field; this attribute must not appear elsewhere
to degrade:append lll[ with sss]: vvv to content where
  • lll is the value of the label attribute if present; otherwise the value of the field attribute with any underscores replaced by spaces
  • sss is the value of the service attribute
  • vvv is the element text node
The value of a countrycode attribute should be appended, in parenthesis, to the country name.
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:persondata leap2:field="..." leap2:service="..."
leap2:label="..." leap2:countrycode="...">...</leap2:persondata>
links to examples:
 

term: orgdata

definition:data relevant to a organization
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/orgdata
domain: organization
data type:string or URI
attributes:
field (mandatory)
see table of fields below
label
mandatory for the "other" field, otherwise optional; holds local label
service
mandatory for the "id" field
countrycode
recommended for the "country" field; this attribute must not appear elsewhere
to degrade:append lll[ with sss]: vvv to content where
  • lll is the value of the label attribute if present; otherwise the value of the field attribute with any underscores replaced by spaces
  • sss is the value of the service attribute
  • vvv is the element text node
The value of a countrycode attribute should be appended, in parenthesis, to the country name.
Leap2A implementation:
<leap2:orgdata leap2:field="..." leap2:service="..." 
leap2:label="..." leap2:countrycode="...">...</leap2:orgdata>
links to examples:
 

Fields appearing within persondata and orgdata

In the following table, the column M gives the multiplicity — the number of times that a persondata or orgdata instance with this field can appear within a person or organization item.

Fields common to personal data and organizational data

value of field attribute M extra attributes format definition and notes

country

0..* countrycode (optional); label (optional) Text. But, as in addresses, with an optional attribute of leap2:countrycode following SIF(UK): 3-letter ISO 3166-1 code. association with a country This may represent a person's nationality, but as the details of nationality, citizenship etc. are highly complex, it is better thought of generally. If an organization gives more than one country, the first one listed should be the one of the primary seat or head office. More significant country connections should be listed in the XML before less significant ones. The optional label attribute may give a human-readable indication of the nature of the association with the country, e.g. "nationality", "home country"

website

0..* label (optional) URL address of an associated web page The order of these in the XML should reflect the order of importance or significance given to the page by their owner. The optional label attribute may give a human-readable indication of the nature of the website.

id

0..* service (mandatory) string Person: a context-free service ID through which other people can access information about or communicate with the holder (including, e.g. IM and VOIP). IDs that are specific to a context should be given in their context, as roleid within e.g. an affiliation or activity. Where possible, the concatenation of the service URL and the id string should be a URL at which information about the person on that service can be read.
Organization: typically a registration number of the organization with some official body. Order is not significant.

email

0..* e-mail: rfc5322 If there are multiple e-mail addresses given, the preferred or default one should come first in the XML.

workphone

0..* recommended format: full international, starting with + (+44 for UK) If more than one is given, the first one should be the primary one.

minicom

0..* recommended format: full international, starting with + (+44 for UK) Included because of SIF(UK) having it.

fax

0..* recommended format: full international, starting with + (+44 for UK) Pretty common for businesses.

mobile

0..* recommended format: full international, starting with + (+44 for UK)

other

0..* label (mandatory) label indicates the meaning of the field This must not be used for information that could go into another field defined here. Exporting systems may want to add their own extra attributes, in which case they should have a local namespace.

Fields specific to personal data

value of field attribute M extra attributes format definition and notes

full_name

0..1 text This is equivalent to a concatenated subset of prefix, legal given names, preferred given name, legal family name, preferred family name, suffix (given and family reversed if family name first)

preferred_family_name

0..1 text This may be used e.g. if the legal family name is long or has more than one component. If not present, assume legal family name is preferred.

preferred_given_name

0..1 label (optional) text often either one of the legal given names, or a variant, or a nickname Even if this contains spaces, it should be treated as single name. If not present, assume first legal given name is preferred. The optional label attribute may give a human-readable indication of the name component type.

family_name_first

0..1 "yes" or "no": default = "no". whether the family name is usually given before the given names. Because the default is "no", this field will not be needed for most European/American and many other names. Origin is MIAP. (Does the LRS use this?)

name_prefix

0..1 text component of person's full name that appears before given or family names E.g. honorific "title" - in English, commonly Mrs. Mr. Dr. etc.

name_suffix

0..1 text component of person's full name that appears after given or family names E.g. "Jr", "Esq.", "Ph.D."

dob

0..1 W3C Complete date, e.g. 1989-03-20 date of birth If more precise format is used, any time part should be treated as insignificant.

gender

0..1 0=not known, 1=male, 2=female, 9=not specified Following UK Learner Records Service: "0 = Not Known. The gender of the person has not been recorded. 1 = Male 2 = Female 9 = Not Specified. Unable to be classified as either male or female."

openid

0..* identifier with the openid service This is used across many service providers.

homephone

0..* recommended format: full international, starting with + (+44 for UK) If an exporting system attempts to replace a leading "0" in an unchecked field with "+44", the number should first be checked as a plausible UK number.

Fields specific to organizational data

value of field attribute M extra attributes format definition and notes

preferred_org_name

0..1 text If not present, assume legal org name is preferred. This can hold "trading name".

Service abbreviations

I'd like to get rid of service abbreviations, if possible. Just use a URI. We should maintain a list of sensible URIs for common services.


Attributes


Attributes defined by Atom

These are used without any namespace prefix.

 

term: label

definition:"human-readable label for display in end-user applications"
notes:See also the Leap2 label attribute.
domain: category
data type:text
links to further documentation: Atom: label
 

term: scheme

definition:" IRI that identifies a categorization scheme"
notes:
domain: category
data type:URI
links to further documentation: Atom: scheme
 

term: term

definition:"string that identifies the category to which the entry or feed belongs"
notes:
domain: category
data type:text
links to further documentation: Atom: term
 

Attributes defined by Leap2A

These are used with the namespace prefix leap2:

 

term: countrycode

definition:ISO code for the named country
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/countrycode
domain: country
data type:3-letter code from ISO 3166-1
to degrade:Append value in parenthesis to containing country text.
links to further documentation:
 

term: display_order

definition:number determining order in which component parts should be displayed
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/display_order
domain: has_part; is_part_of
data type:integer
to degrade:discard
links to further documentation:
 

term: field

definition:(see the definitions of the individual fields)
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/field
domain: persondata / orgdata
data type:one of: field names defined in the table.
to degrade:see persondata and orgdata
links to further documentation:
 

term: label

definition:system-defined label for piece of information
notes:See also the Atom label attribute.
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/label
domain:
data type:text
to degrade:Varies. See the containing (domain) element.
links to further documentation:
 

term: point

definition:kind of date
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/point
domain: date
data type:one of: "end"; "start"; "target"
to degrade:see date
links to further documentation:
 

term: service

definition:the service for which an identifier is provided
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/service
domain: persondata / orgdata
data type:URI
to degrade:see persondata and orgdata
links to further documentation:
 

term: stage

definition:name of the progress status
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/stage
domain: status
data type:one of: "planned", "progressing", "completed", "suspended"
to degrade:(see status)
links to further documentation:
 

term: when_added

definition:date at which a part was added to the whole that it is part of
notes:
URI:http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/terms/when_added
domain: has_part; is_part_of
data type:RFC 3339
to degrade:discard
links to further documentation:
 

Leap2A category schemes


These category schemes are for use with the scheme and term attributes of Leap2A categories. Categories are intended to give information about the significance of the item that contains them.

In the table below, the multiplicity limits how many terms from that particular category scheme may be applied to a single item.

 
scheme: audience
scheme definition:indication of whether item is private or not
notes:This is for ensuring that items can be exported and marked "Private" so as not to be made visible to others in a receiving system.
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/audience#
domain:entry
multiplicity:0..1
default term:Shareable
terms: Privateis for viewing by the portfolio holder only
Shareablemight be intended for viewing by other people, subject to permissions
 
scheme: check
scheme definition:well-defined yes/no indicator
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/check#
domain:entry
multiplicity:0..1
default term:(none)
terms: Norepresents the answer no, or false
Yesrepresents the answer yes, or true
 
scheme: common_item
scheme definition:no definition
notes:This is a mixed scheme containing diverse categories
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/common_item#
domain:entry
multiplicity:0..*
default term:(none)
terms: Intermissionan activity representing a period spent disengaged from an activity of which it is a part
Noteis an entry of no more precisely defined significance
Personalstatementis an entry about the portfolio holder
 
scheme: learning_cycle
scheme definition:categorization along the lines of Kolb's learning cycle
notes:
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/learning_cycle#
domain:entry
multiplicity:0..1
default term:none
terms: Experiencingrepresents acting, doing, feeling, etc.
Reflectingrepresents observing, reviewing, watching, etc.
Conceptualizingrepresents thinking, learning, concluding, theorising, etc.
Testingrepresents planning, experimenting, trying out, etc.
 
scheme: life_area
scheme definition:indicates an area or areas of life with which the item is associated
notes:The general idea of this scheme draws from ideas in several vocabularies in IMS LIP.
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/life_area#
domain:entry
multiplicity:0..*
default term:Unclassified
terms: Developmentpersonal and/or professional development of the portfolio holder
Educationlearning or being taught in the course of upbringing for general purposes
Enterprisebusiness or organisational activity which is not ordinary employment or self-employment
Familyunpaid care of members of the holder's family, or similar
Involuntarye.g. sickness, hospitalisation, detention
Leisurerecreation, hobby, pastime, sport
Nationalnational service, or any other compulsory national scheme
Personaldone for any personal reasons not covered better by other categories
Placementwork placement, internship or apprenticeship
Politicsactivity etc. with political motivation
Religionactivity etc. motivated by religious obligation, custom or conviction
Trainingdevelopment of specific skills / abilities usable in the context of work
Traveltravel for its own sake, rather than related to another category
Unclassifiedbelongs to any or none of the other categories
Voluntaryunpaid work typically for some cause or charity
Workpaid work undertaken normally
 
scheme: person_type
scheme definition:kind of role the person plays in relationship to the portfolio holder
notes:If there are any person items, exactly one of them must refer to the portfolio holder, and must be categorised with the person_type "Self".
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/person_type#
domain:person
multiplicity:0..*
default term:none
terms: Assessorperson who assesses any of the present portfolio information
Friendanyone in a peer group of the portfolio holder
Guardianparent, guardian, carer, etc.
Mentoranyone in a supportive, supervisory or advisory role to the holder
Otherperson who clearly does not fall into any of the other categories (use label to indicate)
Refereeperson who can be referred to for confirmation of, or futher detail about, some of the portfolio information
Selfthe person item is the portfolio holder (cannot be used together with other terms)
Unclassifiedbelonging to any or none of the other categories, but not "Self"
 
scheme: priority
scheme definition:allows items to be ranked
notes:If no priority is given for any item, relative priorities cannot be assumed. If a priority is given for at least one comparable item, other comparable items without explicit priority should be assigned priority "3"
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/priority#
domain:entry
multiplicity:0..1
default term:none
terms: 5is of the highest priority
4
3
2
1is of the lowest priority
 
scheme: readiness
scheme definition:whether an item is ready or still being drafted
notes:Ready does not necessarily mean that it is in a final form, but that it is no longer in the early stages of creation and can be used as it is, even if still a draft.
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/readiness#
domain:entry
multiplicity:0..1
default term:Ready
terms: Readyis deemed by the portfolio holder to be ready for its intended use
Unreadyis currently in the process of creation, or otherwise deemed not ready for intended use
 
scheme: resource_type
scheme definition:kind of resource
notes:Recommended for resource items.
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/resource_type#
domain:resource
multiplicity:0..1
default term:Unclassified
terms: Courseis a course of education or training
Humancould be a person, a team, a company, an organisation, etc.
Offlineis a digital resource not available on the web
Otheris a resource clearly not falling into any other category
Physicalis a physical resource but not a book or printed material
Printedis a book, some printed material, or a copy
Webis a resource with its own URL
Unclassifiedis any or none of the above kinds
 
scheme: selection_type
scheme definition:kind of selection
notes:Recommended for selection items.
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/selection_type#
domain:selection
multiplicity:0..1
default term:Depends on context.
terms: Abilitieslist of skill, competency or ability definitions
Blogrepresents a feed, or list of blog entries
CVis a CV or résumé
Folderrepresents any set of resources, files or other items
Groupingis a set of entries that are grouped together for reasons not including more specific ones covered by other terms in this scheme
Webpageis something like a web page
Websiteis a set of internal items like web pages, created within the portfolio information
 
scheme: SWOT
scheme definition:basic qualities of a situation
notes:The scheme is widely known and used.
scheme URI: http://www.cetis.org.uk/leap2/a/categories/SWOT#
domain:entry
multiplicity:0..1
default term:none
terms: Strengthrepresents a positive or desirable quality
Weaknessrepresents a negative or undesirable quality
Opportunityrepresents some potential for development
Threatrepresents a danger to the current situation, or obstacle or block to development
 

Implementing Leap2A using Atom


Structure of the package

A Leap2A package shall be:

The main XML file is either the one called leap2a.xml or the single file constituting the whole package.

All files included in a zip archive must be referred to in the main XML file. They may either have corresponding resource items, linked with an enclosure property, or referred to in any entry, also using an enclosure property.

The main XML file in Leap2A shall also be a valid Atom feed.

Namespaces and non-Leap2A markup

All terms specific to Leap2A, and used as element or attribute names in the main XML file, must use the namespace prefix "leap2:". Terms used similarly from Dublin Core should use the namespace prefix "dcterms:" to stand for "http://purl.org/dc/terms/". Terms from Atom must not use any namespace prefix.

Namespace prefixes used must be declared following XML conventions, by adding xmlns attributes inside the feed element.

As with Atom, implementing systems are free to add any extra elements and attributes. However, wherever this is done, these elements and attributes must be given a proper namespace that is not leap2:. It is expected that other systems on importing or receiving such extra elements or attributes may ignore and discard them. Extra bespoke elements and attributes must not be used to represent information that could equally well be represented using Leap2A elements and attributes.

Importing Atom feeds

Most valid Atom feeds will also be valid as Leap2A, except that they will be missing a version element. If it is clear on inspection that the feed does not contain old Leap2A markup, it may be imported as if it had the most recent version element. If it has no version element but some Leap2A markup, it should be treated with caution, as it could be intended to be represented using the 2009-03 version of Leap2A.


References and notes